Factors related to self-mutilation: contribution to Nursing care Technologies for adolescents
The interest in the theme under study emerged from the concern of academics about the suffering experienced by adolescents who practice self-mutilation, since the present act becomes frequent at this stage. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), adolescence is a process in which it covers pre-adolescence and adolescence itself, starting at 10 years old and ending at 20 incomplete years old (WHO, 2011). Deliberate Self-mutilation has recently been considered a problem that has reached a large part of the adolescent population worldwide. Defined as the experience of direct deliberate damage or alteration of body tissue without the conscious intention of suicide, with the act of assaulting the body itself, from small cuts on the skin, burns, bites and scratches, with the use of perforating objects, usually made on parts of the body that are hidden by clothing, such as legs and arms and even genitals (Giusti, 2013; Cardoso, 2015). Thus, Nursing plays a key role in the establishment of bonding, in the knowledge of the causative factors, not underestimating the risk, to provide assistance to the adolescent who practices self-mutilation. The nurse who has the opportunity to work with these adolescents understands the need for care in order to develop a planning for the construction of interventions aimed at helping this self-harmful behavior, through therapeutic strategy, through active listening and observation, because they are key factors to establish necessary care (Rissanen, Kylma, & Laukkanen, 2009; Bennardi et al., 2016). However, based on this context, the following guiding question was established: What are the factors associated with the self-mutilation of adolescents identified by nurses during care delivery in nursing care? And to answer this concern, we aimed to describe the factors associated with self-mutilation from the perception of nurses in front of adolescents who seek therapy at the Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Infantil e Adolescente (CAPSi) (Center for Child and Adolescent Psychosocial Care) in Curitiba/PR.