Proposition of a New Guideline for Validation of Interview Scripts in Qualitative Research
The objective of the article is to propose a new guideline for validation of interview scripts in qualitative research based on the validation of data collection instrument experience of the "CVC - Content Validation Coefficient" method (Hernández-Nieto, 2002). The proposal of the Validation Method for Interview Scripts for Qualitative Research - ISQR - covers two dimensions (Content and Semantics) and four attributes: (Alignment with Objective, Conformity to the Construct, Clarity and Qualitative Expectation). This proposal is presented in four stages (Initial Screen Generation, Validation of Judges, Results Outline and Final Routing) and reinforces the criteria of reliability and validity of the qualitative research, the stimulus to the self-reflection and the protagonism of the researcher.
Researchers argue that reliability and validity are terms belonging to the quantitative paradigm rather than to qualitative research (Altheide & Johnson, 1994; Leininger, 1994). Agar (1986), in turn, suggested that a different language is needed to fit the qualitative view, which would replace reliability and validity with terms such as credibility, accuracy of representation, and authority of the writer. On the other hand, Morse, Barrett, Mayan, Olson, & Spiers (2002) defend the use of reliability and validity to achieve rigorousness in qualitative research, because, when implementing verification strategies while conducting research, the researcher minimizes bias and improve the qualitative research.
The ISQR method was developed based on applied experience in qualitative research about the ecosystem of social innovation in 2018 in Brazil where interviews and focus groups were conducted. The interviews and focus groups, based on the literature review, were submitted to the validation of 5 judges through the CVC method (Hernández-Nieto, 2002), which enabled the refinement of the research instrument. The CVC uses the criteria of "language clarity", "practical relevance" and "theoretical relevance" to calculate through an algorithm, the validation coefficient of a question. Hernández-Nieto (2002) states that, in a scale of 0.0 and 1.0 of the CVC and CVCt, values lower than 0.80 represent “unacceptable validity and agreement”; values equal or greater than 0.80 and lower than 0.90 are considered “satisfactory validity and concordance”; and values equal or greater than 0.90 up to the limit of 1.0, correspond to “excellent validity and concordance”.
Thus, based on the experience of using the CVC, the feedback of the judges and the empirical evidences, a Validation Method for Interview Scripts for Qualitative Research – ISQR is proposed. The proposal covers two dimensions (Content and Semantics) and four Attributes: (Alignment with the Objective of the research, Conformity to Construct, Clarity and Qualitative Expectation). The ISQR method presents a scale from 1 to 4 with a respective qualitative value (low, medium, high and total), according to Table 1.