Emergency of Cooperation in Business Organizations: Required Conditions
Abstract. Cooperation refers to the relationship between two or more individuals that allows for the successful completion of common objectives. It does not simply consist of simultaneous and coordinated individual actions, but rather implies that the team is aware of the effort of the group and takes care to maintain the unity of that group. Emergency of the cooperation has been studied from two parallel and complementary perspectives: structural factors and dynamic factors. Structural factors show the network’s features in which the individuals interact. This perspective includes variables like the number of individuals participating in the interaction and the relative close or remote distances between them, to this date there is evidence that these factors weighs on the cooperation emergency. The dynamic factors denote circumstances that are hard to predict, plan, or control, and which arise from the interaction between individuals. Some researches on the subject, emphasize the confidence (credibility), the empathy, the motivation, the shared knowledge, the reciprocal actions, etc. Nevertheless this researches are inconclusive. The necessary complementarity for the dynamic and structural characteristics for cooperation in business organizations is observed from these investigations, because of this, this study provides evidence that contributes to the identification of the dynamic factors that ease the Emergency of the cooperation in business organizations with greater performance. Some of the results mentioned the probability and the relevance of the reciprocal actions, versatility, and communication in the generation of good performances because of their greater capacity to generate cooperative behavior. Among other findings, the perceived relevance, the selective incentives and the emotional incentives are mentioned like conditions that in the long term do not influence the business organizations from the cooperative point of view. The combination of three techniques of qualitative research were used in this project: formulation of hypotheses through a literature review about the conditions that could explain the emergence of cooperative behaviors, structural analysis through an expert panel comprised of six experts who have worked with the problem of cooperation from the academic or business perspective, and a longitudinal case study made in a SMEs, which consisted in a non-participatory and direct observation in a natural setting developed during 24 months, without any intervention or modification. We hope the findings of the present investigation contribute and provide evidence from qualitative research (expert analysis and case study) with respect to the dynamic conditions that facilitate cooperation, and to glimpse future lines of research in the subject.