Contributions Of The Combination Of Techniques And Participants In Qualitative Research On Institutionalized Older Adult’s Health Promotion

  • Marina Celly Martins Ribeiro de Souza
  • Natália de Cassia Horta
  • Quesia Nayrane Ferreira
  • Maria Paula Andrade Rodrigues Machado
  • Tatiana Teixeira Barral de Lacerda
Keywords: Workshops, Focus Group, Qualitative Research, Elderly, Long-Term Care Facilities.

Abstract

Brazil currently experiences the phenomenon of population aging as a result of increased life expectancy. This demographic transition has significantly increased the demand for longitudinal care such as Long-term Care Facilities (LTCF) for older adults in recent years (Camarano & Barbosa, 2016). However, there are difficulties in monitoring these facilities, few regulations, lack of studies and spaces of reflection, making this an important field of research. The present study emerged from the research "Quality of Life of the Institutionalized Older Adults: Aspects of Health Promotion", developed in five phases in which different collection strategies were used. Objective: To present the power of the conjugation of techniques and different participants in qualitative research on the health promotion of the institutionalized older adults. Methodology: Descriptive-exploratory, quantitative-qualitative research in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, from 2014 to 2018. In the first phase, the mapping of 170 ILPI was carried out and 156 of them were characterized by telephone inquiry or on-site visits. In phase 2, 46 semi-structured interviews with 51 municipal and state-level stakeholders were conducted in order to comprehend how healthcare system is structured. In the third phase, 62 professionals and managers of LTCF participated in 10 focus groups aiming to know how they promote health. In the fourth phase, 127 institutionalized participants were interviewed to understand the meanings attributed to LTCF and their perception about their quality of life. The last phase intended to interact with the participants and validate the results using the workshop as a collection data strategy. After data collection, analysis were performed according to Bardin (2009): vertical and horizontal reading and the approach of the central ideas originating themes and the grouping of the themes categories and empirical subcategories (Minayo, 2014). Results: Each technique has its peculiarity with advantages and disadvantages depending on the objectives and the participants’ characteristics. The interviews allowed capturing the perception about living in a LTCF and the meanings assigned as a place of care as well as the political interface with caring of older adults. In the focus groups the polysemy attributed to the concept of LTCF, the experience of institutionalization and the promotion of health were important findings. In the workshops, participants had the opportunity to reflect and potentialize the discussions and conflicts. Considerations: The use of several techniques for the qualitative research data collection was extremely relevant considering the complexity of the object of this study. The workshop presented a greater approximation and interaction with the participants. We hope to expand the discussion about collective techniques in qualitative research, especially the workshops, and their use as intervention strategy.

Published
2018-10-09